Generally Accepted Accounting Principles

stable monetary unit concept

Of course, the information needs of individual users may differ, requiring that the information be presented in different formats. Internal users often need more detailed information than external users, who may need to know only the company’s value or its ability to repay loans. Accountants use generally accepted accounting principles to guide them in recording and reporting financial information.

The time period assumption states that the life of a business can be divided into equal time periods. A unit of account is something that can be used to value goods and services, record debts, and make calculations. Money is considered a unit of account and is divisible, fungible, and countable. With money being countable, it can account for profits, losses, income, expenses, debt, and wealth. So unless specified otherwise, it will be assumed that such principles were implemented in the final accounts of the company.

Examples Of The First Part Of The Assumption

The reason for this is that monetary unit brings a lot of stability in the long run. The windows are broken, the inside of the store is stable monetary unit concept in shambles and inventory has been stolen. The retailer will only report a loss on the damaged property in his financial statement.

You’ve to record every business transaction and event in a monetary unit i.e. The reason is the same, the monetary unit is constant and stable in for a long term. Suppose students of Smart Science School hold the highest position in the city. This is because of helpful, talented, intellectual and exam-focused teachers of Smart Science School. Now if you look at the books of Smart Science Schools, you’ll find furniture, fixtures and other assets.

The concept of going concern is crucial to shareholders because it demonstrates the stability of the entity. This assumption can affect the stock price of the business and their ability to raise capital or draw in more investors. The Metro company purchased a tract of land for $25,000 in 2005. Because of inflation, the worth of the tract of land is now $40,000. Can not record the transaction that could not measure in currency. For example, the inventories that the company purchased for resales have their own values and can be measured in currency, USD. These kinds of inventories could be recorded in the Financial Statements.

stable monetary unit concept

Therefore, they are more conservative or paint the company in a more realistic light. The Time period concept simply states that financial information i.e. the balance sheet, income statement, and statement of cash flows should be provided in online bookkeeping regular time intervals. For publicly traded companies or corporations, the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 requires this. This act requires corporations to issue quarterly statements known as 10-Q and annual statements (known as a 10-K).

PERIODICITY CONCEPT is the concept that each accounting period has an economic activity associated with it, and that the activity can be measured, accounted for, and reported upon. The problem when using the monetary unit as a measuring unit is that this unit is neither a stable nor an international standard. Financial bookkeeping statements are prepared with the assumption that the entity will continue to exist in the future, unless otherwise stated. Compensation given in a transaction which does not involve cash. A non-monetary reward can consist of almost any material object such as jewelry, precious metals or an automobile for example.

What Is Meant By The Concept Of Stable Monetary Unit?

Without these units of measurement, we wouldn’t be able to communicate financial information effectively. Themonetary unit principlestates that transactions and events must be able to be measured in some type of monetary unit in order to be recorded. Financial statements normally provide information about a company’s past performance. However, pending lawsuits, incomplete transactions, or other conditions may have imminent and significant effects on the company’s financial status.

  • PERIODICITY CONCEPT is the concept that each accounting period has an economic activity associated with it, and that the activity can be measured, accounted for, and reported upon.
  • This principle results in the classification of assets and liabilities as short‐term and long‐term.
  • The monetary unit assumption is just an assumption that assumes that transactions and events can be recorded in a monetary unit as it is constant and stable in the long run.
  • The monetary unit assumption assumes that the unit of measure remains reasonably stable so that dollars of different years can be added without any adjustment.

If you are a qualified CFA, ACCA, CA, CIMA, MBA or other accounting body or a student of these levels comment on these posts. StockMaster is here to help you understand investing and personal finance, so you can learn how to invest, start a business, and make money online. For example, we have to property shown in the balance sheet, one cost $ 30,000, online bookkeeping and another cost $ 300,000. We may think the second property is far better than the first one. However, when we look closer, both are very similar in every feature. In this situation, we do not record any transactions as we cannot translate the activity into a monetary amount. We may record overtime expense when we can quantify the amount.


Another problem with this assumption is that it can be deceiving or misleading for external users of financial statements. It might not be $350,000 currently, as $50,000 out of $350,000 is from 1992.

An information that cannot be expressed in terms of money is useless for financial accounting purpose and is therefore not recorded . Accountants must use their judgment to record transactions that require estimation. The number of years that equipment will remain productive and the portion of accounts receivable that will never be paid are examples of items that require estimation.

stable monetary unit concept

A very closely related concept to the monetary unit assumption is the stable dollar value assumption which means that the dollar does not lose its purchasing power over time. The fact that the money loses its purchasing power because of inflation is ignored while recording transactions in accounting. The money measurement concept states that a business should only record an accounting transaction if it can be expressed in terms of money.

What Is Meant By The Concept Of Stable Monetary Unit Is This Assumption Realistic Why Is It Used In Accounting?

The accrual method in accounting means that „revenue or income is recognized when earned regardless of when received and expenses are recognized when incurred regardless of when paid“. The matching principle is one of the basic underlying guidelines in accounting. The matching principle directs a company to report an expense on its income statement in the period in which the related revenues are earned. This means that the focus of accounting transactions is on quantitative information, rather than on qualitative information.

Problems With Monetary Unit Assumption

As the accounting transactions will not reflect with the inflation, and there is no adjustment made. An economic entity’s accounting records include only quantifiable transactions.

The Metro company cannot adjust its balance sheet because the monetary unit assumption enforces it to ignore the impact of inflation. Monetary Unit Assumption is the accounting principle that concern about the valuation of transactions or event that entity records in its financial statements. Definition of Matching Principle The matching principle is one of the basic underlying guidelines in accounting. The objectivity principle is the concept that the financial statements of an organization be based on solid evidence. The intent behind this principle is to keep the management and the accounting department of an entity from producing financial statements that are slanted by their opinions and biases.

The monetary unit is a simple and universally recognized basis of communicating financial information. It is the most appropriate and effective basis of recording, communicating and analyzing the financial data on the basis of which rational business decisions can be made.

The following is the detail explanation of the monetary unit assumption. Currently theFASBdoes not require that companies recognize inflation in theirfinancial statements. There are a variety of reasons why, but mainly because the United States has enjoyed low inflationary rates for decades. It is a systematic process of identifying, recording, measuring, classifying, verifying, summarizing, interpreting and communicating financial information. It reveals profit or loss for a given period, and the value and nature of a firm’s assets, liabilities and owners‘ equity. Historical cost principle – assets are reported and presented at their original cost and no adjustment is made for changes in market value.

The monetary unit principle, however, is not concerned with inflation over time. It deals more with the ability to measure transactions in money without drastic fluctuations in currency values in the short-term. The monetary unit principle is also known as the monetary unit concept and the monetary unit assumption. To be useful, financial information must be relevant, reliable, and prepared in a consistent manner. Relevant information helps a decision maker understand a company’s past performance, present condition, and future outlook so that informed decisions can be made in a timely manner.

The monetary unit principle states that you only record business transactions that can be expressed in terms of a currency. Thus, a company cannot record such non-quantifiable items as employee skill levels, the quality of customer service, or the ingenuity of the engineering staff. Or, a business cannot record the monetary value of a valuable speech given to employees about how to engage in innovative activities. The stable monetary unit concept assumes that the value of the dollar is stable over time. Because of this assumption, past financial statements are usually not updated even if the value of money substantially changes.

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